With the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) looming – some say its already here, a solid STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths) is imperative to bring about the ability to problem-solve. Arising from critical and creative thinking, problem-solving is essential for adaptability – pivotal for survival in a fast-paced time of radical change. Already, one in three young people in Africa is unemployed (two in three in the lower age range), and countries on the continent faring badly for digital competitiveness, our future-readiness for Industry 4IR needs to be seriously addressed.
To take advantage of 4IR opportunities, we need to transform our education – especially an interdisciplinary approach to STEM subjects. Maths, in particular, has been identified as a means of combatting unemployment and securing sustained socio-economic inclusion. It’s the best way to move more of our young people into the middle-class and narrow the gap between those who have and those who have not.
At the moment, Africa is synonymous with poor rankings for maths and reading-with-comprehension. To improve this, we need collaboration with all key stakeholders to prioritise teacher and learner development. Public-private partnerships are the best means of closing critical gaps.
With 52 years of experience in this field, here are my seven steps to address current STEM education deficiencies:
Africa is currently in need of systemic processes that make sure that every single teacher develops. Development in the STEM context means instilling confidence in maths and science content and teaching methodologies. If you don’t develop methodology then teachers cannot communicate effectively with children. This has to be taught.
In education, teachers and learners come first. We need to make it a law that teachers complete programmes devised to help them reach set standards of competency. We also need ongoing appraisal systems to intervene early when incompetence is evident and to add reward to teachers who excel. And we need to pay teachers sufficient salaries to incentivise continuous learning and excellence.
There are huge gaps in Africa from a parent perspective. Unless children have access to involved guardians who encourage them to read, debate and take part in stimulating interactions and dialogues, they’re going to struggle to embark on that critical journey of self-discovery. The start of kids’ understanding of ‘who am I, where can I go with my life’ begins at home. We need to support and empower parents who might not have formal education, to still be in a position to assist their children succeed at school.
It’s imperative that young people start to question what they want to do after matric – and how education can get them there – so they ‘buy into’ their education. For example, if a teenager wants to be a psychologist or an engineer, she or he will need to take maths in school.
Young people need far wider and deeper exposure to role-models who are examples of success. They need to be able to engage with jobs and companies who they might not normally get exposure to.
A cohesive strategy of quality assurance:
There is still a need for an over-arching strategy for all learners, all teachers, all resources, and to manage all assessments to enable learners to make the most of the opportunity that is the school. The education ministries across the continent must set up an inspection system to ensure the quality of teaching and learning are at a high standard in all schools. We have to engage and partner with teacher organizations to balance the important protection of teacher rights with the need for quality teaching outcomes.
Tertiary opportunities and employability:
As well as fixing ECD and primary school education, there have to be viable – and affordable – adult education programmes. The problem with our colleges currently is their quality and their appropriateness. With youth unemployment rising and 4IR on the horizon, we simply have to provide young people with ways to acquire globally-equivalent skills.
We have to build schools that have a transformational ethos. Kids are frequently underfed, face teacher absenteeism, teacher abuse, unsafe school environments, corporal punishment and even sexual abuse – especially for girls – which, in part, explains why less than half the kids who enrol in grade one complete high school. To truly change schools, we need to secure high-powered school leadership. We need to be committed, incorrigible, strong, decisive leaders who champion positive change. Transformation cannot happen without the right leaders.
It’s only by all stakeholders – private and public – collaborating to ‘fix’ our education deficiencies that we’ll make any real progress. Businesses are already facing a talent dearth in many industries. To overcome this, these businesses need to invest in young people while they’re still in school.